US National Emergencies (28)

 

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA), Title II of Pub.L. 95-223, 91 Stat. 1626, enacted October 28, 1977, is a United States federal law authorizing the President to regulate commerce after declaring a national emergency in response to any unusual and extraordinary threat to the United States which has a foreign source. The IEEPA authorizes the president to regulate commerce after declaring a national emergency in response to any unusual and extraordinary threat to the United States that stems from a foreign source.

Section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622 (d)) provides for the automatic termination of a national emergency unless, prior to the anniversary date of its declaration, the President publishes in the Federal Register and transmits to the Congress a notice stating that the emergency is to continue in effect beyond the anniversary date.

Twenty-eight (28) national emergencies

Middle East Terrorists
Cote d'Ivoire
Libya
Cuba
Ukraine (3)
Zimbabwe
Iran (2)
South Sudan
Somalia
Syria
Yemen
Burma
Iraq
Belarus
Western Balkans
North Korea
Russian Federation
Liberia
Transnational Criminal Organizations
Export Control Regulations
Certain Terrorist Attacks
Colombia
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Sudan
Weapons of mass destruction


Middle East Terrorists – "Because these terrorist activities continue to threaten the Middle East peace process and to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States, the national emergency declared on January 23, 1995, and the measures adopted to deal with that emergency must continue in effect."
renewed January 21, 2014 BO

Cote d'Ivoire – "While the Government of Côte d'Ivoire and its people continue to make progress towards peace and prosperity, the situation in or in relation to Côte d'Ivoire continues to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States. "
renewed February 4, 2014 BO

Libya - " The situation in Libya, however, continues to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States and we need to protect against this threat and the diversion of assets or other abuse by certain members of Qadhafi's family and other former regime officials. Therefore, the national emergency declared on February 25, 2011, and the measures adopted on that date to deal with that emergency, must continue in effect"
renewed Feb 20, 2014 BO

NOTE: The US failed to renew the Libta "national emergency" in February 2013 as required by law, but did renew it in 2014, a year late. Section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622 (d)) provides for the automatic termination of a national emergency unless, prior to the anniversary date of its declaration, the President publishes in the Federal Register and transmits to the Congress a notice. So the president should have declared a new national emergency in Libya since the former one was automatically terminated by law.

Cuba – ". .to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national emergency was extended and its scope was expanded to deny monetary and material support to the Cuban government. The Cuban government has not demonstrated that it will refrain from the use of excessive force against U.S. vessels or aircraft that may engage in memorial activities or peaceful protest north of Cuba. "
renewed February 25, 2014 BO

Zimbabwe – ". .to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the foreign policy of the United States constituted by the actions and policies of certain members of the Government of Zimbabwe and other persons to undermine Zimbabwe's democratic processes or institutions."
renewed Feb 28, 2014 BO

Ukraine - "...the actions and policies of persons -- including persons who have asserted governmental authority in the Crimean region without the authorization of the Government of Ukraine -- that undermine democratic processes and institutions in Ukraine; threaten its peace, security, stability, sovereignty, and territorial integrity; and contribute to the misappropriation of its assets, constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States, and I hereby declare a national emergency to deal with that threat."
intitiated Mar 6, 2014 BO

Iran* – "The actions and policies of the Government of Iran continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States."
renewed March 12, 2014 BO

Ukraine - " the actions and policies of the Government of the Russian Federation with respect to Ukraine—including the recent deployment of Russian Federation military forces in the Crimea region of Ukraine—undermine democratic processes and institutions in Ukraine; threaten its peace, security, stability, sovereignty, and territorial integrity; and contribute to the misappropriation of its assets, and thereby constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States"
intitiated March 16, 2014 BO

Ukraine - "..the Russian Federation, including its purported annexation of Crimea and its use of force in Ukraine, continue to undermine democratic processes and institutions in Ukraine; threaten its peace, security, stability, sovereignty, and territorial integrity; and contribute to the misappropriation of its assets, and thereby constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States."
initiated March 20, 2014 BO

South Sudan - "... activities that threaten the peace, security, or stability of South Sudan and the surrounding region, including widespread violence and atrocities, human rights abuses, recruitment and use of child soldiers, attacks on peacekeepers, and obstruction of humanitarian operations, poses an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States"
intitiated April 3, 2014 BO

Somalia - "The situation with respect to Somalia continues to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States. "
renewed April 7, 2014 BO

Syria* – "The Syrian regime's actions and policies, including the use of chemical weapons, supporting terrorist organizations, and impeding the Lebanese government's ability to function effectively, continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States"
renewed May 7, 2014 BO

Yemen - "The actions and policies of certain members of the Government of Yemen and others in threatening Yemen's peace, security, and stability continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States." renewed May 12, 2014 BO

Burma – "The actions and policies of the Government of Burma continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States. For this reason, the national emergency declared on May 20, 1997, and the measures adopted to deal with that emergency in Executive Orders 13047 of May 20, 1997; 13310 of July 28, 2003; 13448 of October 18, 2007; 13464 of April 30, 2008; and 13619 of July 11, 2012, must continue in effect beyond May 20, 2013."
renewed May 15, 2014 BO

Iraq -- "The obstacles to the continued reconstruction of Iraq, the restoration and maintenance of peace and security in the country, and the development of political, administrative, and economic institutions in Iraq continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States."
renewed May 19, 2014 BO

Belarus -- "The actions and policies of certain members of the Government of Belarus and other persons continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States. Accordingly, the national emergency declared on June 16, 2006, and the measures adopted on that date to deal with that emergency, must continue in effect..."
renewed June 10, 2014 BO

Russian Federation -- "The risk of nuclear proliferation created by the accumulation of a large volume of weapons-usable fissile material in the territory of the Russian Federation continues to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States. For this reason, the national emergency declared in Executive Order 13617 of June 25, 2012, and the measures adopted on that date to deal with that emergency, must continue in effect...."
renewed June 19, 2014 BO

North Korea -- "Because the existence and risk of proliferation of weapons-usable fissile material on the Korean Peninsula and the actions and policies of the Government of North Korea continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States, the national emergency declared in Executive Order 13466, expanded in scope in Executive Order 13551, and addressed further in Executive Order 13570, and the measures taken to deal with that national emergency, must continue in effect .... "
renewed June 20, 2014 BO

Western Balkans -- "The actions of persons threatening the peace and international stabilization efforts in the Western Balkans continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States. For this reason, the national emergency declared on June 26, 2001, and the measures adopted on that date and thereafter to deal with that emergency, must continue in effect...."
renewed June 23, 2014 BO

Burma -- " I hereby find that the continued detention of political prisoners, efforts to undermine or obstruct the political reform process, efforts to undermine or obstruct the peace process with ethnic minorities, military trade with North Korea, and human rights abuses in Burma particularly in ethnic areas, effectuated by persons within or outside the Government of Burma, constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States."
initiated July 11, 2012 BO & not renewed

Liberia - "Although Liberia has made significant advances to promote democracy, and the Special Court for Sierra Leone convicted Charles Taylor for war crimes and crimes against humanity, the actions and policies of Charles Taylor and others have left a legacy of destruction that could still challenge Liberia's transformation and recovery. The actions and policies of these persons continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the foreign policy of the United States."
renewed July 15, 2014 BO

Transnational Criminal Organizations -- "The activities of significant transnational criminal organizations have reached such scope and gravity that they threaten the stability of international political and economic systems.. . .The activities of significant transnational criminal organizations continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States."
renewed July 18, 2014

Lebanon -- "Certain ongoing activities, such as continuing arms transfers to Hizballah that include increasingly sophisticated weapons systems, serve to undermine Lebanese sovereignty, contribute to political and economic instability in the region, and continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States."
renewed July 22, 2013 BO & not renewed

Export Control Regulations - "On August 17, 2001, consistent with the authority provided to the President under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), the President issued Executive Order 13222. Because the Export Administration Act has not been renewed by the Congress, the national emergency declared on August 17, 2001, must continue in effect beyond August 17, 2013."
renewed August 8, 2013 BO

Certain Terrorist Attacks – "I am continuing for 1 year the national emergency previously declared on September 14, 2001, in Proclamation 7463, with respect to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the continuing and immediate threat of further attacks on the United States."
renewed September 10, 2013 BO

Terrorism - ". . . the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, in New York and Pennsylvania and against the Pentagon. . .that led to the declaration of a national emergency on September 23, 2001, has not been resolved. These actions pose a continuing unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States."
renewed September 18, 2013 BO - not renewed

Colombia - "The actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered in Colombia continue to threaten the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States and to cause an extreme level of violence, corruption, and harm in the United States and abroad.."
renewed October 16, 2013 BO

Democratic Republic of the Congo
- "Because this situation continues to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the foreign policy of the United States, the national emergency declared on October 27, 2006, and the measures adopted on that date to deal with that emergency, must continue in effect "
renewed October 23, 2013 BO

Sudan
– "Because the actions and policies of the Government of Sudan continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States, the national emergency declared on November 3, 1997, as expanded on April 26, 2006, and with respect to which additional steps were taken on October 13, 2006, must continue in effect "
renewed October 30, 2013 BO

Weapons of mass destruction – "The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the means of delivering them continues to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States; therefore, the national emergency first declared on November 14, 1994, and extended in each subsequent year, must continue."
renewed November 7, 2013 BO

Iran - "On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), took related steps to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the situation in Iran. Because our relations with Iran have not yet returned to normal, and the process of implementing the agreements with Iran, dated January 19, 1981, is still under way, the national emergency declared on November 14, 1979, must continue in effect.."
renewed November 12, 2013 BO

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* These two "national emergencies" regarding Iran and Syria have been referenced in other executive orders issued on April 22, 2012 and May .1, 2012.

Iran and Syria - Information Technology -- "The commission of serious human rights abuses against the people of Iran and Syria by their governments, facilitated by computer and network disruption, monitoring, and tracking by those governments, and abetted by entities in Iran and Syria that are complicit in their governments' malign use of technology for those purposes, threaten the national security and foreign policy of the United States."
initiated April 22, 2012 BO

Iran and Syria- Foreign Sanctions Evaders -- "efforts by foreign persons to engage in activities intended to evade U.S. economic and financial sanctions with respect to Iran and Syria undermine our efforts to address the national emergencies"
initiated May 1, 2012 BO

 

and Iran

Iran -- ". . . in light of the Government of Iran's use of revenues from petroleum, petroleum products, and petrochemicals for illicit purposes, Iran's continued attempts to evade international sanctions through deceptive practices, and the unacceptable risk posed to the international financial system by Iran's activities,. ."
initiated July, 30, 2012 BO

 

NOTICE that these executive orders refer to other executive orders -- the king has no limits/

 

Iran sanctions -- executive orders

--human rights abuses
--illicit nuclear activities
--development of unconventional weapons and ballistic missiles
--support for international terrorism
--deceptive banking
--computer and network disruption, monitoring, and tracking
--evading sanctions


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Executive Order 13553 of September 28, 2010
--ordering, controlling, or otherwise directing, the commission of serious human rights abuses against persons in Iran or Iranian citizens or residents, or the family members of the foregoing
http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=88510&st=iran&st1=

Executive Order 13574 of May 23, 2011
--no reason given
http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=90412&st=iran&st1=

Executive Order 13590 of November 20, 2011
--illicit nuclear activities of the Government of Iran, along with its development of unconventional weapons and ballistic missiles and its support for international terrorism
http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=97311&st=&st1=

Executive Order 13599 of February 5, 2012
--deceptive practices of the Central Bank of Iran and other Iranian banks to conceal transactions of sanctioned parties, the deficiencies in Iran's anti-money laundering regime and the weaknesses in its implementation, and the continuing and unacceptable risk posed to the international financial system by Iran's activities
http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=99323&st=iran&st1=

Executive Order 13606 of April 22, 2012
--Grave Human Rights Abuses. . . facilitated by computer and network disruption, monitoring, and tracking by those governments, and abetted by entities in Iran and Syria that are complicit in their governments' malign use of technology for those purposes
http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=100679&st=iran&st1=

Executive Order 13608 of May 1, 2012
--efforts by foreign persons to engage in activities intended to evade U.S. economic and financial sanctions
http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=100725&st=iran&st1=

Executive Order 13622 of July 30, 2012
-- use of revenues from petroleum, petroleum products, and petrochemicals for illicit purposes, Iran's continued attempts to evade international sanctions through deceptive practices
http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=101679&st=iran&st1=

Executive Order 13628 of October 9, 2012.
--no reason given
http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=102338&st=iran&st1=